Disparity and Disproportionality

1 Phillips, S. D., Burns, B. J., Wagner, H. R., & Barth, R. P. (2004). Parental arrest and children involved with child welfare services agencies. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 74, 174-186.

Puzzanchera, C., Finnegan, T. and Kang, W. (2005). Arrests of youth, by race, from Crime in the United States, 2001. (2002). Washington, DC: Federal Bureau of Investigations.: Population of youth from "Easy Access to Juvenile Populations" Online. Available:

Youth Violence: A Report of the Surgean General (2001). Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services.

Chibnall, S., Dutch, N.M., Jones-Harden, B., Brown, A., Gourdine, R., Smith, J., et al. (2003). Children of color in the child welfare system: Perspectives from the child welfare community. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families and the Children's Bureau.

Magruder, J., & Shaw, T. V. (Forthcoming). Children ever in care: An examination of cumulative disproportionality. Child Welfare.

Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and Reporting System Report (AFCARS), Preliminary FY 2006. Estimates as of January 2008 (14). (Retrieved May 2009 from

Testa, M., Poertner, J., & Derezotes, D. (2004). Race matters in child welfare: The overrepresentation of african american children in the system. Child Welfare League of America.


1 National Research Council. (1993). Understanding Child Abuse and Neglect. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 108-110.  

Practice Model

1 Bennis, W. & Nanus, B. (1986). Leaders: Strategies for Taking Charge. New York, N.Y.: Harper & Row.


1aAdministration for Children and Families. (2006). Summary of the results of the 2001-2004 Child and Family Services Reviews. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved April 30, 2008, from

1b National Conference of State Legislatures. (September, 2006). Child welfare caseworker visits with children and parents: Innovations in state policy. Retrieved December 4, 2008, from

2a The Annie E. Casey Foundation. (2005). Factors Influencing Retention of Child Welfare Staff: A Systematic Review of Research. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from{B269CA6B-CE31-4D87-B5B4-7325DA544FEA}

2b National Child Welfare Workforce Institute. Retrieved February 2, 2010, from

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Administrative Practices

2 Cahalane, H. & Sites, E.W. (2008). The climate of child welfare employee retention. Child Welfare, 87(1), 91-114.

3 Glisson, C. (2000). Organizational climate and culture. In R.J. Patti (Ed.), The handbook of social welfare management (pp. 195-218). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Information Management

1 management. 2010. In Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved 2010, from 

2 Casey Family Programs. (2007). Post-Convening Report: Putting Data To Work, Improving Child Well Being.

Strategic Partnerships

  1 American Bar Association and Casey Family Programs. (2007). Blueprint for change education success for children in foster care. Washington, DC: Legal Center for Foster Care and Education.


1 Drake and Johnson-Reid, M. (2008). Social work research methods: from conceptualization to dissemination. NY: Allyn Bacon.

2 Wells, K., & LIttell, J.H. (2009). Study quality assessment in systematic reviews of research on intervention effects. Research on Social Work Practice, pp. 19, 52-62.

3 Courtney & Dworsky. (2005). Midwest evaluation of the adult functioning of former foster youth. from



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